before starting , lets look at the big picture,categorizing slums in any metropolitan city(in India).
CLASSIFICATION OF URBAN SLUM IN A METROPOLITAN CITY
Urban slums in a metropolitan area are the center where commercial activity evolves in fast and uncontrolled way. The word “slum” is often used to describe informal settlements , However, the generic terms ‘slum’ fails to encompass the diversity of the different types of informal settlements that dot cities. In Delhi, for example, the typology of slums is quite complex, with seven types of settlements
•Legally Notified Slum Areas,
•Jhuggi-Jhompri (JJ) Clusters,
•Pavement Dwellers, and
Khora was come under the category of unauthorized colony, now under Ghaziabad municipal corporation (from 2012).
Duty of administration towards a colony/settlement ?
Regularisation vs Up-gradation
the regularization of settlement is a slogan used as a political sop to lure slum dwellers during elections. Even if regularization does take place, it remains a narrow approach. It simply provides a legal status to informal settlements and secures them from ad-hoc displacement. However, it does not guarantee regular delivery of civic amenities.
KHODA : LOCATION / HISTORY / BACKGROUND/ROLE IN ECONOMY
LOCATION: The Khora village, with its extended abadi in the form of Khora colony, is situated between the south eastern periphery of Delhi, the south western periphery of Ghaziabad and north western periphery of Noida. Being located on the eastern fringe of Delhi it is in the vicinity of Ghazipur landfill site, a wholesale meat market, Gharoli village and its extension, and is contiguous with MayurVihar Phase three, that a moderately developed residential colony. The Hindon cut canal marks the north western boundary of Khora colony, while the National Highway 24 separating Noida and Ghaziabad forms its northern boundary. It is flanked by gated group housing societies in Indirapuram built by private developers on the side of Ghaziabad and surrounded on the Noida side by the institutional area of Sector 62 in the east, and RajatVihar
HISTORY AND CENSUS DATA:
The transformation primarily took place due to the development of satellite town of Noida. Noida was created in 1976 to decentralize economic activities from the capital, prevent in- migration and decongest the metropolis; to curb speculation around the land close to Delhi giving rise to unplanned growth; to provide an alternative site for absorbing non-conforming industries in Delhi and to provide affordable housing at a manageable distance from Delhi (NOIDA 1983). The model of development followed in Noida was similar to that of Delhi. An industrial authority was constituted by an act of the state government that gave the responsibility of land acquisition and development of the villages notified under them. Khora was one of the villages notified and eventually acquired by Noida. total population of 656, (Census 1971, p. 55) to a population of 189,410 in 2011. Officially, Khora has been declared a census town in the 2011 census. While these are official census figures,the actual numbers living in Khora seem to be much more with newspaper and other media sources reporting around 1 million in 2013 calling it ‘Asia’s biggest labor colony’.
ROLE ( IN ECONOMY ) KHORA: A STOREHOUSE OF DEVALUED LABOR AND ECONOMY
It has absorbed not just the devalued population but also the economic activities that are important for the functioning of the core cities but are shifted in margins or peripheries. For instance, Khora is used as a storehouse by many companies. Dhoom Singh Yadav, a native of the village has rented out space to Maruti for keeping cars for repairs. A number of dealers of the paper market that has been shifted from Old Delhi to Ghazipur have kept their machinery or operating small plants in Khora. There are hardly any free plots in Khora. Most of the free plots have been rented out to be converted into open or closed godowns for collecting and sorting waste of all kinds of recyclable material ranging from plastic bottles, cartons, paper. Khora has also become a shelter for the rag pickers from Bengal who have been ousted from Noida. The larger plots have been converted into temporary shelters made up of tarpaulin sheets where the waste pickers both live and sort waste into different gunny bags and sell to the godown owners.
The present situation of khora colony is as bad as unauthorized colony, situation can be better understand by this past year newspaper article.
a section explaining real situation inside khora .
No proper planning of services leads to dangerous risk ,electrical transformer are kept without proper boundary wall and also lose connections of electrical/high tension wires proves very dangerous for road users .
Views showing bad condition of main access roads,from these roads there are more than 2000 alleys (gali) attached.There is no proper drainage/sewerage lines which leads to the road blockage during monsoon also bad condition of roads and its small right of way adds to the congestion at every point.
Due to no fresh water supply in the area, the residents use the submersible to use groundwater which is also illegal in area. the submersible system cost around 25k and most of the residents belongs to low income group and the need of water for them is cater by tanks or water bottle by private contractors.
ISSUES OF RESIDENTIAL SPACES
A view of “sokha”
The inner roads in the area are made of concrete and without any sewerage and other services .due to which residents dig a small area near road after every 4 to 5 house in which they collect their sewage and it finally absorbs by ground and pollute ground water
Condition of houses due to uplift of roads
again and again Due to No sewerage lines on road and continous road uplift leads to a problem that the daily functions which require water like bathing etc cannot be done on ground floor as its level is below the road level and water cannot drain.